前言

这个名叫“日常修辞术”的展览实际上由两个部分组成——“事后烟”计划以及一组“请坐”场景,它们共同指向商业社会中的人际关系。个体心理的复杂性交织于这些人际关系(无论长期的或短期的,必要的或不必要的)当中,我们总是在面对建立与维系,在不同的社会场合,我们使用不同的角色和技巧,一些普遍的商业社会价值观则左右着人与人交往的方式和程度。

摄影师黄臻伟拍摄的十个现场代表了不同的社会关系场域,这组照片去除了人的成分,但物与物(座椅与座椅)之间所呈现的显而易见的位置关系学其实已足以让我们洞悉这些现场的日常情境。而展览本身则是照片之外的第十一个关系空间。艺术家王崎从2011年3月16日收集至今的香烟,与桌椅、菜单以及“欢迎光临”脚垫一起,为参观者们捏造了一个一般性社交空间场景,这些香烟可供参观者随意吸食,在被吸食的过程中,授烟者和吸烟者间的陌生关系借由展览这个中介方被建立。吸食行为在这里是对作品的破坏,这种破坏,也同时是对作品“最终样式”的重新塑造。除此之外,在这里发生的所有结识、寒暄、拍照、握手、交换名片行为也都是作品的一部分,因为这个展览,就是社交本身。因此,在如今艺术展览空间所普遍具有的社交功能背景下,它可以被视为一次“空无一物”的艺术展览,而这,也正是我们想要的。

“The Rhetoric of the Everyday Life” is an exhibition composed by two sections both point towards the interpersonal relationships in the commercial society – “The Afterwards Smoke” and a series of “Have a Seat” scenarios. The complexities of individual psychological states interact and interweave with the establishments of interpersonal relationships – whether it is long-term or short-term, necessary or not. As we constantly cope with the issues of buildup and sustenance of such relationships, a variety of skills and roles are applied in response to the shifts of social events. The manners and depths of people’s relationships are determined by the conventional value advocated by the commercial society.

The ten locales presented by photographer Huang Zhenwei set an example of the social relation spheres discussed above. Despite the absence of human beings in the photographs, the obvious object-to-object (chair-to-chair) positions provide adequate information on observing the men-to-men daily communications. The exhibition space per se is recognized as the eleventh relation sphere. Along with the cigarettes artist Wang Qi have collected since March 16th, 2011, a table, a chair, a menu, and a “welcome” rug, we intend to create a general social communicational set-up. Visitors can smoke these cigarettes as they wish, and as the cigarettes are being consumed, a relationship between the strangers, between the cigarettes providers and the receivers is established during the exhibition. The smoking activity becomes a form of destruction to the work, as well as a recreation of its “ultimate version”. In addition, the meeting, greeting, photographing, handshaking, and business card exchanging taken place in this hall also appear as a component of the exhibition, as it is all about social communication. Therefore, as the function of social communication is ubiquitous in the art exhibition environment nowadays, this could be seen as an “exhibit-less” exhibition, which nevertheless demonstrates our intention and expectation.

1.麦当劳的AA观

从1990年深圳的第一家门店至今,中国已经有了上千家麦当劳,柠檬黄色的大“M”遍布各个城市。而当初那些塑料滑梯上的孩子也在这二十年间逐渐成长为中国社会的新生力量,他们成长在“更多选择,更多欢乐”的时代中,麦当劳叔叔的这个口号宣告了资本主义经济消费观的全面来临,而与之相伴的,还有日新月异的互联网技术、更开放的性观念以及自由平等的公民意识。
AA制作为这种消费观里的一种成分,在有着西方自由主义基因的麦当劳,它被体现在点餐方式、座位布局,甚至一块托盘上(在许多地方,用餐者会自觉将餐后托盘里的废弃物放入垃圾桶)。A跟A作为两个并列的、独立的个体,蕴含了西方个体本位的思想观念,与中国式的团体运作大相径庭。而从点餐、送餐、食用到清洁一气呵成的个人行为则完全符合现代城市社会的节奏需求。

The Dutch treatment of McDonald’s

Since the first foundation of McDonald’s in Shenzhen in the year of 1990, there are already thousands of McDonald’s restaurants in China, with giant lemon-yellow “M” marks all over cities nationwide. Meanwhile, those who played on the sliding boards had been growing into the new blood in Chinese society in these 20 years. They grew under the slogan of “more choices, more fun”, which announced the overall arrival of the consumption concept of capitalistic economy, as well as the continually updating Internet techniques, more opened attitudes towards sexualities and citizen’s awareness of freedom and equality.

The Dutch treatment, which is also known as the AA (Algebraic Average) style, as a component part of such consuming notion, is shown from the ordering mode, the arrangement of seats, even to a tray in the McDonald’s, in the restaurant carrying the genes of western liberalism - in many places, customers would empty their trays into the litter bins self-consciously. The two “A”s are two paratactic and independent units representing the western concept of individualism, which is quite different from the Chinese collectivism. And the independent act of ordering, delivering, eating and cleaning totally matches the speed required by the modern urban society.

2.会客茶几的用茶法

对“天道酬勤”、“鹏程万里”这类装饰物的青睐从上个世纪90年代延续至今,这种市侩味浓重的通俗励志语,同时成为许多小型公司的企业文化。在福建,会客茶几是另一种普及的公司文化载体,特别是一些小型公司中,会客茶几更替代了会议室的功能。它们在公司业务里扮演的角色更为直接。我对会客茶几的兴趣来自一个长期从事物流行业的朋友,他告诉我,招待不同等级的客人,他们会使用不同价格的茶叶。这是一种普遍而有趣的社会心理——对他者的价值判断决定对待他者的方式。一些公司中甚至常设一个泡茶者,这个角色通常由健谈的员工担任,只有招待重要客人时,老板才亲自上阵。复杂而讲究的茶艺让会客茶几同时承担了一种视觉化的功能,喝茶者通过观看茶艺暂时支开业务中的僵局,就像泡茶者通过谈论茶叶缓解无话题时的窘境。

Tea ceremony on the meeting tea table

From 1990s to today, the philistine inspirational slogans like “God help those who help themselves” and “Have a bright future!” are favourable and become the corporate culture for many small companies.

In the Fujian Province, tea tables carry another pervading corporate culture. These tables, in mini companies, almost take the place of the meeting rooms, which makes their function more direct in the company business. My interest for the meeting tea tables was first aroused by a friend engaged in the logistics industry for a long time, who told me that they use tea of different price levels to treat different clients. This is a normal and interesting social psychology – they regard someone depending on how they assume his or her social value. In some companies, there is even a long-standing position for a tea maker, who is usually held by a conversational employee. Only when there are important customers would the boss take the role as the tea maker personally. Complicated and particular tea ceremony undertakes a visual function of distracting the embarrassment in business, and talking about tea related subjects could also fill up the blankness of conversation.

3.麻将桌的微楚歌

麻将不是简单的命运掌握在自己手里,牌桌各方的需求和索取、协助与牵制并存。在麻将桌上,你不得不明白有进有出的道理,如果只是吝啬地固守一方,你的牌面就会面临毫无进展的危机。当然,如果胡牌迟迟不来,还有可能,是与别人手中的某张牌结了“死对”。麻将的这种供求关系也常常被运用在许多人情牌局,“万事俱备只欠东风”的敏锐识别,可以让喂牌成为上下家现实关系的促进剂,甚至成为变相的贿赂手段。

为使牌局看起来轻松愉快,人们还发明了一些麻将术语,比如“南,打出去就不难了”这样的自我安慰,它同样适用于现实生活中的时运不济。而像“二奶(二饼)”这样的谐音词汇不过是牌桌上的插科打诨,真正的调情发生在牌桌下。

打牌者热衷于这些轻松的表象,也时刻清楚自己的四面楚歌,在嘻嘻笑笑中暗自角力,不仅在牌桌上,也在现实中。因此在中国,麻将是普及的市侩游戏,也是社会复杂性的微格局。

The besieged situation on the mah-jong table

Playing mah-jong is not simply deciding your own fate by yourself, but your chance to win or lose is affected by the combination of other’s need and offer of tiles. When you are in the game, you’ll have to understand the principle of “receiving and giving is the both ends you have to meet”. If you are too stubborn to let go, the integral situation will only stop improving. Well, of course, when the time of winning the game hasn’t come up for a long time, it is possible that your tile and other’s tile have reached a deadlock. This connection of offering and requiring is often used in many gambling party of human relationship. Being sensitive to know that what others want in the game and then offering the tile can be the activator of better realistic relationships or even a converted means of bribery.

In order to make the gambling more joyful, people invent some mah-jong terms, such as “discarding the south tile makes everything easier” (in Chinese, the word “south” and “difficult” share the same pronunciation). This kind of self-comfort is also applied in depressed moments in real life. And words like “the mistress” and “two dots”, which are homophonic in Chinese, are just to introduce comic remarks in the dialogue; the real flirting happens under the table.

Players love to appear relaxed, but they also see themselves under the situation of being besieged. They contest secretly on the mah-jong table and in reality, with fake smiles on their faces. In this case, mah-jong is not only a prevailing philistine game, but also a tiny patter of showing social complication in China.

4.会议室的话语权

会议长桌通常是一种权力组织构成,它和政府机构人员的合影一样,遵循固执的位置关系学。与之相协调的是话语权的比重、秩序分配。许多乏善可陈的会议以居于会议桌中心位置的主会者们形式主义的政策、方针宣读作为开场,在冗长的宣读中,会议长桌的对称方式造就了一种表面亢奋、实际委靡的围观格局。
在中国,等级制度越森严、关系网络越复杂的单位,会议的实质效用越可能大打折扣。因为许多该在台面上说的话,被会议桌上的不同利害方所牵制,中国人相信“言多必失”,而即便你的发言万无一失,也还有可能因此遭致嫉妒,“枪打出头鸟”成为那些持见者的又一顾虑。因此台面下才是行驶话语权的安全场所,而大多数会议室,仍是面面相觑的中庸之道温床。

The speaking right in the council chamber

The meeting table usually constitutes a power organisation, which obeys the position relationship just like taking photos for government civil servants. What coordinates the relationship is the proposition of speaking, as well as the assignment of order. There are large quantities of tiring meetings that begin with the formalistic reading of policies by the meeting leaders in the middle of the table, whose symmetrical mode has made a seemingly exciting but practically depressive pattern of being onlookers.

In China, in the enterprises with stricter hierarchies and more complicated relation nets, the virtual utility of the meeting is more possible to be weak, because what should be said publicly may be distracted by different groups who are representing assorted benefits. Chinese believe that “he that talks much errs much”, and even if the speech is flawless, the announcer could be grudged because of this, which is a common situation, so the proverb of “shoot the bird which takes the lead” becomes another worry of the idea holders. Therefore, to speak secretly is to speak safely, and most council rooms are still breeding the golden mean.

5.餐桌的转盘局

如果说分餐制是一种个体本位,以食为天的中国人的用餐方式则沿承了小共同体的社会心理。一个小共同体中总是存在主导权,它通常属于家长、年长者或经济身份优越、社会地位较高的一类人。在中式餐桌上,它体现在主位的设置,一般面向大门,或有较完整视野的为主位,餐巾折叠方式(通常主位餐巾折成柱状)辅助了餐桌主位的识别。转盘则是餐桌小共同体聚合的中心,除了方便夹菜,它也是“分享”的巧妙隐喻(区别于一盘菜固定放置在你面前的“独享”意味)和“风水轮流转”的修辞装置,它的使用和禁忌同时凸显了一种小共同体里的秩序协调,长幼、男女等关系都左右着转盘转动的方式和顺序。

The turnplate on the dining table

Eating separately by dishes embodies individualism while the eating mode of the Chinese, who deem that food is the first necessity of the people, shows the social psychology of small communities. A small community is always led by the upper level of identity, usually belonging to parents, older people or those with superior economic and social status. On the Chinese dining table, the level is commonly reflected on the arrangement of primary seats, which in most circumstances face the door or possess integral view, and the folding mode of napkins, which usually are folded in columnar shape.

The turnplate is the centre of the community. It is not only convenient for fetching food, but also a hidden metaphor of sharing, which is different from enjoying alone with a fixed dish located in front of someone. Apart from that, it shows the meaning of everything changes for everyone. Its usage, together with its prohibitions, shows the system in the group. Status of generation, age and gender can also affect the order and turning mode of the plate.

6.客厅的双性格

由沙发、茶几、电视、电话主机构成的客厅并不像家庭中的其他功能区(如卧室、书房、厨房)一样具有完整的私密性,这也决定了它的角色存在分裂的可能。在只有家庭成员参与的客厅中,可以无所顾忌地使用任何家庭状态——打盹、瘫坐、争吵、讨论隐晦的家庭财务状况或谈情说爱。但一旦客人到访,外来关系便进入客厅,牵制客厅的心理角色。会客者的社会身份因此取代家庭身份,像在家庭之外一样,融入表象化的表演成分——也许是从一个脾气暴躁的父亲变成顺从的下属,也许是由一个温柔的妻子变成干练的女强人。家庭内部的关系也在此时呈现一种暂时的表象,那是维护家庭整体形象的技巧。但事实上,许多家庭矛盾也来自于社会身份在家庭中的代谢不完全,回想一下,你在多少次家庭争吵中使用着你习以为常的社会语调?

Double characters of the living room

The living room, composed of sofa, desk, television and telephone, is different from other functional areas in the house like the bedroom, the study and the kitchen that provide complete privacy, this fact decides that its character could be possibly split up. When the living room contains only family members, the family could shamelessly do any within-the-family stuff, including taking a nap, sitting down weak and limp, quarrelling, discussing private financial situation of the family or connecting with love and romance. However, once there are guests in the living room, external relationship enters and distracts the role of the room. The social identity of the visitor, henceforth, would replace the family status, and the seemingly performance is mixed like the situation outside the family. For instance, a peevish father may turn into an obedient subordinate; a tender wife could also change into a capable and experienced woman. Internal relation appears better temporarily at this time to protect the whole image of the family. But in fact, many family issues are originated from the divergence of fitting social status in the family. Let’s recall and ask ourselves, how many times we have used the wonted tone in society when it comes to family quarrels?

7.酒吧的邂逅语

在急促的酒吧音乐中,交谈只是符号性动作,干杯才是酒吧里真正的语言。这种特殊的沟通方式通过增加身体里的酒精浓度,瓦解日常人际关系的禁忌,使一切在酒吧外部看起来复杂的事物,在这里变得简单起来。比如在酒吧中,你可以不用患难与共便与人称兄道弟,也可以不用谈论爱情便诱发性关系。陌生人在这里身着性感的衬衣、短裙或高跟鞋,使用看起来魅力十足的眼神和吸烟动作,这一切都使陌生人在这里成为一个极具诱惑力的词汇,而酒吧拒绝宽敞的个人空间,则是给陌生人的交流展开更大余地。

Pick-up lines in the pub

In the pubs with hurried music, chatting is merely a symbolic behaviour, and to drink and yell “bottom up” is the real language to communicate. This particular way of communication raises the alcohol concentration in the body and breaks the taboos in interpersonal relationships, making everything appear simpler than it really is outside the bar. For instance, in the pub, you gain a “friend” without even experiencing anything together, and you can also have sex with others even you are not concerned with love and romance. Strangers here wear sexy shirts and attractive skirts or high-heeled shoes. Using meaningful glance and charming smoking movement, stranger becomes an extremely alluring word in this place. In addition, pub’s refusal on offering roomy personal areas provides bigger opportunities for strangers to exchange their ideas.

8.电梯的冷冻术

写字楼电梯接纳了一种局促空间和短暂时间里的人际关系,它有时是城市中单位面积人口密度最高的公共空间。它让一帮去往不同楼层、分属不同公司,却拥有朝九晚五共同作息的乘客,在这个临时空间中成为最熟悉的陌生人。所有乘坐者面朝一方,时常伴随身体的挤压和摩擦,原本相识的人在电梯里的交谈也尽量保持音量和声调的克制,这种紧密的物理关系也是口香糖广告热衷于使用电梯场景的原因之一。只有在电梯故障时,这些陌生人才会意识到彼此互为共同体。而其他时间里,他们被写字楼所培育的乏味性格定型,无论朝九晚五之外是个什么样的人,无论是否在电梯里,制服都是他们冷淡的掩体。
“叮”的一声过后,冷冻解除,电梯不是微波炉,熟悉的陌生人仍是陌生人。

“Freeze!” in the lift

Lifts in the office buildings generate a constrained space and a kind of temporary interpersonal relationship, which sometimes are the public areas with the most density of population in elemental area. A lift enables passengers who are heading to different floors and companies sharing the same timetable to be familiar to each other for a very short time. All passengers are facing towards one direction, and with the body extrusion and friction, those who already know each other would keep their voices and tunes down in their conversation. This kind of intimate physical relationship is one of the reasons why advertisements of chewing gum have a craze in using scenes in the lifts. Only when the lift is out of action, these strangers would realise that they are in the same community. However, in other times, they are shaped out of the boring character of the office building – no matter what features they have outside the office, whether they are in the lift or not, their uniforms are their cold covers.

After the notification of “Ding”, the cold atmosphere unfreezes. But the lift is not a microwave – the most familiar strangers still remain strange to each other.

9.夜总会的收放度

夜总会是一种性别化明晰的社交空间,其使用者是那些被认为是财富、权力象征的男人们,这使其表面呈现出强烈的男权倾向。对财富和权力的掌控,也正是他们在女人面前炫耀的资本,男人们对此乐此不疲。对这种男权化心理的把握,成为夜总会成功的要义。
早期大多数夜总会包厢的装修风格毫无悬念——罗马柱、文艺复兴时期的石膏雕塑以及各种巴洛克装饰,西方审美的片段式移植被认为与财富身份挂钩,在许多新农村建筑中也不乏所见。而现在许多新的夜总会则大量采用了镜面材质,某种程度上代表了新兴财富阶层的审美趣味转移。在这种材料的反射面,客人与服务者(包括坊间俗称的“公主”、“少爷”、“妈妈桑”等)是同一包厢里的两大阵营,但这种关系分布会因“小姐”的加入而分解成一个个两人集团,各自在劝酒时扮演临时的利益共同体。
被一饮而尽的酒精成为许多关系演化的润滑剂。在中国,商人们将夜总会视为商业交往的重要场域,寓商于乐。日常交往的刻板身份在杯觥交错中逐渐褪尽,代之以活泼的酒场形象,商业关系也在灯光的配合下趋于亲近。然而在这种场合中最难的,也正是这种日常身份与酒后状态尺度的掌控。

The restraint and loose of nightclubs

Nightclub is a social space emphasizing on gender division, and is used by the men representing wealth and power, which superficially makes it appear as an image of intense masculinity. The control of wealth and power is exactly the capital to show off in front of women, and men could never get tired of this. To seize men’s minds of masculinity becomes the key to the success of nightclubs.

In early days, most nightclubs decorate their boxes with marble pillar, plaster modeling of Renaissance and all sorts of Baroque ornaments. In western aesthetics, transplanting in section type is considered to be connected to one’s assets and status, and can also be spotted frequently in new farm buildings. Nowadays, new clubs utilize considerable materials of reflecting mirror, which, in some way, represents the transfer of the aesthetic taste of the up and coming wealthy level. In the plane of reflection, customers and servers, including the so-called “princess”, “signorino” and “mama”, are two opposite groups in one box. But this kind of relationship would divide as the participation of the “misses” into small one-to-one groups, which respectively would act as a temporary benefit community when the alcohol is offered.

Those glasses of alcoholic drink that are drained off continually have become a kind of lubricant in the progress of relationships. In China, traders regard nightclubs as an important field of commercial associations by talking business in a relaxing and happy way. The starch identity difference in normal life tends to be convergent after enough quantity of drinks, and instead, vivacious atmosphere shows up and business connection is getting closer with the coordination of the light. But the most difficult part is to grasp the measurement of the daily status and after-drinking condition.

10.练车场的新集权

练车场的学员座椅通常是简陋的矮凳,而教练座椅则可能带有塑料扶手。应试技艺的速成性决定了新集权产生的必要,大部分教练也通过频繁的吼声和黝黑脸上的严肃表情提醒着这种集权的存在。在这种集权下,练车场拒绝常规的社会价值判断,无论你是谁,从事何种职业,有什么样的教育背景或社会地位,在练车场里都是菜鸟之一。社会角色在这里通常是失效的,这里只需要区分“小陈”和“小李”,而不需要建立任何累赘的关系。

The new centralisation of the driving field

In driving fields, rough low stools are usually for the trainees while trainers’ seats may have plastic armrests. The speed-up educational program leads to the production of new centralisation, which is reflected by the frequent roaring and serious expressions on the tanned faces of most coaches. Under the circumstance of centralisation, driving field is a place that ignores normal social value judgment, including one’s identity, job, educational background and social status, as everyone is a beginner in driving. Social roles become invalid here, and once there are simple names to distinguish person from person, no burdensome relationships would be established.

文字 text/ 王琦

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 麦当劳的AA观    The Dutch treatment of McDonald’s 
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 会客茶几的用茶法   Tea ceremony on the meeting tea tab 
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 麻将桌的微楚歌   The besieged situation on the mah-j 
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 会议室的话语权   The speaking right in the council 
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 餐桌的转盘局   The turnplate on the dining table 
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 客厅的双性格   Double characters of the living roo 
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 酒吧的邂逅语   Pick-up lines in the pub 
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 电梯的冷冻术   “Freeze!” in the lift 
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 夜总会的收放度   The restraint and loose of nightclu 
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 练车场的新集权     
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